Feast of St Agathus, Pope of Rome
ALTHOUGH I am unable to attend the Great Conversation on "Who is currently the best candidate for the President of the U.S.A.?", I would like to respond to the question about whether or not the movements behind Trump and Sanders constitute a desire to return to monarchy, as well as the question of whether or not the right leader can provide a moral compass for America.
I am not totally certain of the motivations behind the supporters of either Trump or Sanders, but I think that as Christians the orientation towards monarchy ought to be more natural to us than an orientation towards democracy or republicanism. To put it as concisely as possible: the Western tradition, in its three main streams—Graeco-Roman, Jewish, and Christian—favors monarchy more robustly than any other form of government. My focus will be on the biblical, Jewish, and Christian sources of that tradition.
Much of the Classical tradition insists on monarchy as the proper means for the moralization and humanization of the people: e.g., Musonius Rufus:
In the next place it is essential for the king to exercise self-control over himself and demand self-control of his subjects, to the end that with sober rule and seemly submission there shall be no wantonness on the part of either. For the ruin of the ruler and the citizen alike is wantonness. But how would anyone achieve self-control if he did not make an effort to curb his desires, or how could one who is undisciplined make others temperate? One can mention no study except philosophy that develops self-control. Certainly it teaches one to be above pleasure and greed, to admire thrift and to avoid extravagance; it trains one to have a sense of shame, and to control one's tongue, and it produces discipline, order, and courtesy, and in general what is fitting in action and in bearing. In an ordinary man when these qualities are present they give him dignity and self-command, but if they be present in a king they make him preeminently godlike and worthy of reverence. ~Musonius Rufus, That Kings Also Should Study Philosophy, Fragment 8
The king, in his own moral example, inspires and empowers the people to follow him in righteousness. This is the best answer for social corruption in the Classical tradition: put a king in power who has spent his life studying philosophy and how to be andreios (manly, virtuous), and you will provide the necessary rudder for the nation as a whole. For the Classical tradition of kingship, kings are images of the divine, who exercise the rule of the gods over their subjects and to whom are due divine honors; because they mimic the divine government of the cosmos, they are capable of bringing the same order to the people beneath their scepters. The philosophical tradition seems, on the whole, to afford more legitimacy to this sort of governance than to democracy as it existed, say, in Athens; hence Plato's wealth of material on the philosopher king in The Republic. On the whole, democracy was backwards in the ancient world; it succumbed again and again to partisan division and exploitation by wealthy and powerful tyrannoi in Athens; its distant cousin, the Roman Republic, similarly eventually fell, first to manipulation by the principate and then into dissolution by imperium, and the much more open and frank kingship of emperors like Domitian.
Monarchy in the Jewish tradition also begins with the conviction of divine kingship mediated by a human representative. God is the ultimate king over the people of Israel and, also, the cosmos; as Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks says in his introduction to The Koren Sacks Siddur,
The word melekh, 'King,' when applied to God means, first, that God is the sole ultimate Sovereign of the people of Israel, who accepted His kingship at Mount Sinai. At that ceremony, God undertook to guide the Israelites' destiny, while the people accepted their vocation as 'a kingdom of priests and a holy nation,' bound by God's laws. The second and wider meaning is that God is Sovereign over the universe and all humanity—with whom, via Noah, He made a covenant after the flood (Gn. 9). That covenant, with its seven laws, embodies the fundamental principles of human conduct under God. Though God's sovereignty is not yet recognized by all, it will be in the end of days. Hence our prayers often end with the prophecy of Zechariah (14:9), 'Then the LORD shall be King over all the earth.' The sovereignty of God is the ultimate sanction against tyranny. It implies that all human authority is delegated authority, to be exercised only within the constraints of the covenant. . . . God created the universe, He owns it. The world and its benefits do not belong to us. What we possess, we hold in trust from God. This is the legal basis of divine sovereignty of the universe—similar to the ancient concept of 'eminent domain' by which all ownership of land within a country is ultimately vested in its head of state. As Sovereign of the universe, God rules by right, not power. ~The Koren Sacks Siddur, xlvi
Hence the opening to most of the wealth of Jewish prayer: Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu Melekh HaOlam, "Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the universe. . ." The kingship of Israel's God, both over the heavenly powers whom the other nations worship as gods as well as over the earth and all of its kingdoms, and especially of Israel, is the central theme of the Psalms (e.g., LXX Ps. 43:4, 92:1, 94:3, 95:10, 96:1, 98:1, 144:1, 13, 145:10, 149:2). However, the Old Testament generally maintains that God's divine kingship is to be rightfully mediated through the human Israelite monarch. Despite the anti-monarchic material found in 1 Samuel 8, the majority of the Deuteronomistic History seems to assume both the inevitability, legitimacy, and necessity of the Israelite monarchy (see, for example, Dt. 17:14-20). This is the explicit apologetic point of the Book of Judges: namely, the repeated idolatry and covenant infidelity displayed by Israel in the period of the Judges was possible only because "in those days there was no King in Israel; [therefore] every one did what was right in his own eyes" (Jg. 17:6, 21:25).
The Davidic dynasty, especially, is chosen by God to rule Israel forever (2 Sam. 7:1-17) and is promised inheritance of the nations and the ends of the earth, and imperial dominance over other kings and lands (LXX Ps. 2:7-9; 71:8-11; 88:27). The Isaianic visions maintains that Israel's messianic future will be symbolized and centralized around the rule of a Davidic descendant whose rule will be eternal and through whom peace is created among the nations and to whom all of the Gentile kings and nations both pay homage and look to in hope (e.g. Is. 9:6-7, 11:1-10). Hence the thrice daily prayer of the Siddur:
May the offshoot of Thy servant David soon flower, and may his pride be raised high by Thy salvation, for we wait for Thy salvation all day. Blessed art Thou, LORD, who makes the glory of salvation flourish. ~Fifteenth Benediction
The Christian tradition, itself an extension of the Jewish tradition, everywhere seeks to explain Christ in his relationship to the Davidic royal house, as the proper heir to the throne of Israel. The sheer amount of material evidencing this fact in the New Testament and Apostolic Fathers is exhausting in its size and depth, but some important passages are worth noting. Matthew begins his Gospel with a genealogy that seeks to establish Jesus' Davidic legitimacy and populates his Gospel with references to Jesus's royalty (e.g. 2:1-12) and Davidic inheritance (e.g., Mt. 9:27, 12:1-8, 23, 15:22). The Annunciation in Luke, iconically represented on the royal doors of every Orthodox iconostasis, consists in an angelic promise that Jesus will reign forever as Davidic king:
He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the houes of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end." ~Luke 1:32-33
And again in the Song of Zechariah:
Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for he has visited and redeemed his people, and has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David, as he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets from of old, that we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all who hate us; to perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant, the oath which he swore to our father Abraham, to grant that we, being delivered from the hand of our enemies, might serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life. ~Luke 1:68-75
The good tidings of Jesus's birth depend integrally on his birth in David's city (Lk. 2:10-11). In all four Gospels, the Triumphal Entry of Christ into Jerusalem is interpreted by the people as the advent of the Davidic kingdom (Mt. 21:1-11; Mk. 11:1-10; Lk. 19:28-38; Jn. 12:12-15); when asked to rebuke them, Jesus declines (Mt. 21:14-16; Lk. 19:39-40). Jesus's suffering death is interpreted through the lens of Davidic royal psalms (e.g., Ps. 69:2 in Lk. 23:36; Ps. 31:6 in Lk. 23:46; I owe this point to Joshua W. Jipp and his excellent book, Christ Is King: Paul’s Royal Ideology) and his crucifixion establishes him as King of the Jews (Mt. 27:37; Mk. 15:26; Lk. 23:38; Jn. 19:19-20). In response to a question from the disciples about whether or not he will restore the Israelite monarchy, the Risen Christ does not reject the inquiry as illegitimate or inappropriate but rejects only the disciples' presumption to know the kairous and chronous which the Father has established by his own power; instead, the disciples will enact an apostolic ministry to the ends of the earth since, as Davidic king, Jesus is heir to that domain, and his new lordship must be announced there (Acts 1:6-9). The restoration of the Davidic monarchy is alluded to again later in Acts, where St. Peter promises kairous of refreshment and the chronous of restoration to be connected with the return of Christ, who must remain in the heavens at least until Israel has received him (Acts 3:17-26). For St. Paul, Jesus' Davidic royal status is an integral part of the Gospel (e.g., Rom. 1:1-4, 15:12; 2 Tim. 2:8), as it is to the Apocalypse (Rev. 3:7, 5:5, 22:16) and the Apostolic Fathers, where Christ's descent from David is often especially connected to the Eucharistic celebration, as a foretaste of the coming, all-encompassing Davidic kingdom (Ignatius Trallians 9:1-2; cf. Ephesians 18:2, 20:2; Romans 7:3; Smyrnaeans 1:1; Didache 9-10). St. Paul, especially, draws on the rhetoric and language of ancient kingship discourse to exalt Christ, and the logic of kingship proliferates his letters everywhere (seriously, I can't recommend Jipp's book highly enough for this sort of thing).
While ultimately Christians should maintain the apocalyptic sense that they are exiles and strangers among the kingdoms of this present age, since they are a peculiar people unto God and co-heirs with Israel in the divine election and inheritance (1 Pt. 2:1-12), Christians are also confident that the "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah, and he shall reign for ever and ever" (Rev. 11:15). That is, Christ, as Son of David, has indeed inherited reign and rule over all the nations and the ends of the earth and sits now at the right hand of God until his enemies are utterly subdued (LXX Ps. 109:1). But within God's kingdom, exercised and ruled through his Davidic Messiah, the Christian tradition has usually asserted the possibility of Christian vassal-kings—that is, sub-monarchs who may rule in a godly manner on behalf of the exalted Christ, kings who owe their allegiance and homage to the King of kings, the Son of David and of God.
The institution of Christian monarchy has been by no means perfect, but it has served an important function for most of the Classical Christian traditions since roughly the 4th century. While Byzantium may be the natural candidate for the consideration of a Christian monarchy in the patristic era, it is not the only one; Georgia was ruled by Christian kings for centuries, as were Ethiopia and Russia. In each case, the monarchy was conceived in different terms and produced a variety of monarchs upon whom history affords the luxury of modern judgment and estimation. Of interest are the ways in which, in each instance of Christian monarchy, the power and legitimacy of the earthly monarch is always subordinated to the divine monarchy exercised through Christ. A powerful example of this in Byzantium was the refusal to address the emperor as empsychos nomos, living law, since this title was afforded solely to Christ, having fulfilled the Law of God in himself and become the true living Law. There are clear boundaries: a monarchy may submit itself to Christ and seek to act in accord with Christ's lordship, but there is no confusion between the kingdom of God and the kingdom of Justinian, Davit IV, or Vladimir of Kiev.
To summarize: the biblical tradition and the history of Judaism and Christianity are inherently monarchical in their theopolitical outlook, and hold together in tension a theology of exile (both Jews and Christians are ultimately looking forward to the redemption of the people of God and the final consummation of the world in God's coming kingdom) with a theology of the divine legitimacy of human monarchy (both Jews and Christians also recognizing that any and all earthly monarchs are ultimately subordinate to God and the Davidic monarch, whom Christians believe to be Jesus). Kingship discourse about God and Christ are not metaphor: they are literal descriptions of the position and title to which the Father and the Son lay claim (in the prayer life of the Church, we might include also the Spirit: "O Heavenly King, the Comforter, the Spirit of Truth. . .”).
Whether Trump and Sanders supporters are longing for the kind of government that monarchy offers—a system where the gridlock of democratic and republican structures is bypassed by the dictatorial power of a single ruler—American Christians need to come to terms with the legitimacy their tradition assumes for such a system and, indeed, the ways in which monarchy is integral to the faith that they proclaim and the hope for which they long as Christians. This should influence not just the way that we approach the upcoming election (which increasingly presents us with fewer and fewer good options for a new POTUS), but also American politics in general: as apocalypticists by nature, we are essentially enemies of any and every State, being as we are allegiant to a King who has promised to shatter the power and stability of every presently existing rule and replace it with his own; from another perspective, we recognize the possibility for an interim rule characterized by Christian standards, but recognize also that such a thing has traditionally been carried out by monarchy. Moreover, a return to monarchy would be the most straightforwardly Classical and biblical solution to the dissolution of the moral consciousness of Western culture.
In short, heaven favors the crown. St. John of Kronstadt was right: "In Heaven, there is a Kingdom; in Hell, there is Democracy."
David Armstrong is an Orthodox Christian who enjoys a shameless love affair with Jews, Judaism, and other Christians. He is currently an Accelerated Masters student in Religious Studies at Missouri State University in Springfield, MO, where he is nearing completion of his undergraduate degree in Religious Studies with a minor in Classical Greek. He has an avid interest in far too many things, and would do well to specialize.